Time to Peak Levels of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Plasma
Time to Peak THC and CBD Levels
Fasting vs. Non-Fasting Conditions
Fasting conditions generally result in quicker absorption of THC and CBD when taken orally due to reduced competition for metabolizing enzymes in the liver. The time to peak plasma concentration for orally-administered THC in fasting conditions can range from 1 to 2 hours, compared to 2-4 hours under non-fasting conditions (Huestis, 2007; Ohlsson et al., 1986). For CBD, the time to peak concentration is roughly similar to THC, but slightly delayed in non-fasting conditions (Millar et al., 2018).
THC metabolites like 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH have a longer duration in the bloodstream, peaking at around 6-10 hours post-administration (Huestis, 2007).
Other Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids
For other cannabinoids like CBG and CBN, peak plasma concentrations can vary but typically occur between 1-3 hours (Brenneisen et al., 1996). Terpenes such as myrcene and limonene peak around 0.5-1 hour after inhalation (Fischedick et al., 2010). Flavonoids are less studied but are thought to have a quick peak time within 1-2 hours (Baron, 2018).
Comparison Table of Peak and Nadir Plasma Concentrations
|Compound||Time to Peak (Fasting)||Time to Peak (Non-Fasting)||Time to Nadir||Reference|
|THC||1-2 hrs||2-4 hrs||6-10 hrs||Huestis, 2007|
|CBD||1-2 hrs||2-3 hrs||4-6 hrs||Millar et al., 2018|
|CBG||1-2 hrs||1-3 hrs||4-6 hrs||Brenneisen et al., 1996|
|CBN||1-2 hrs||1-3 hrs||4-6 hrs||Brenneisen et al., 1996|
|Myrcene||0.5-1 hr||N/A||1-2 hrs||Fischedick et al., 2010|
|Limonene||0.5-1 hr||N/A||1-2 hrs||Fischedick et al., 2010|
|Flavonoids||1-2 hrs||N/A||2-4 hrs||Baron, 2018|
- Huestis, M. A. (2007). Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 4(8), 1770-1804.
- Ohlsson, A., Lindgren, J. E., Wahlen, A., Agurell, S., Hollister, L. E., & Gillespie, H. K. (1980). Plasma delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations and clinical effects after oral and intravenous administration and smoking. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 28(3), 409-416.
- Millar, S. A., Stone, N. L., Bellman, Z. D., Yates, A. S., England, T. J., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2018). A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84(9), 1888-1900.
- Brenneisen, R., Egli, A., Elsohly, M. A., Henn, V., & Spiess, Y. (1996). The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: A pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 34(10), 446-452.
- Fischedick, J. T., Hazekamp, A., Erkelens, T., Choi, Y. H., & Verpoorte, R. (2010). Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes. Phytochemistry, 71(17-18), 2058-2073.
For individuals with certain medical conditions such as liver disease, cardiovascular issues, or psychiatric conditions, the pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids could differ significantly. It is advised for such patients to consult Dr. Caplan at CED Clinic for personalized, evidence-based care.
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