D47: encapsulation for transdermal cannabis delivery

Encapsulation for Transdermal Cannabis Delivery: An Overview

Cannabis harbors a wealth of compounds like cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, which offer potential medical benefits. One innovative delivery method for these compounds is through encapsulation for transdermal applications. This technique allows for controlled, sustained release, making it a viable alternative to oral ingestion or inhalation.

Understanding Cannabinoids

The crux of cannabis’s therapeutic properties lies in cannabinoids, chiefly THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). While THC is associated with psychoactive effects, CBD is non-psychoactive and holds promise for various therapeutic applications. Both interact with our body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) to produce their effects (Zou & Kumar, 2018).

The Encapsulation Technique

In transdermal delivery, cannabinoids are encapsulated within lipid-based nanoparticles. These nanoparticles protect the compounds and enable controlled release upon skin application (Stinchcomb et al., 2001).

Advantages of Transdermal Delivery

Transdermal delivery offers a bypass of the gastrointestinal system and liver, reducing potential side effects from oral consumption. Additionally, this method allows for controlled and prolonged release, enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cannabinoids (Bruni et al., 2018).

The Role of the Skin

The skin comprises multiple layers, including the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer. The stratum corneum, the outermost layer, acts as a barrier. Hence, the encapsulated nanoparticles must be formulated to pass through this layer effectively (Paudel et al., 2010).

Clinical Applications

Studies have shown efficacy in using transdermal cannabis for conditions like chronic neuropathic pain and arthritis (Lynch & Campbell, 2011; Hammell et al., 2016).

Considerations for Use

The effects of cannabis can vary among individuals, requiring consultation with healthcare professionals for proper usage and dosage.

Enhancing Transdermal Cannabis Delivery: Technologies and Agents

Technologies for Transdermal Delivery

Several technologies exist for transdermal delivery:

  1. Topical Lotions: Non-occlusive, quickly absorbed but short-lasting effects.
  2. Creams: Often non-occlusive, longer-lasting than lotions.
  3. Ointments: Occlusive, provide extended release.
  4. Patches: Provide controlled release over extended periods.
  5. Topical + Occlusive Dressing: Increases absorption, maximizes duration of action.

Enhancing Penetration

Alcohol and other solvents can improve skin penetration by altering the stratum corneum’s lipid structure (Williams & Barry, 2012).

Barriers to Penetration

Occlusive dressings and thick petroleum agents may inhibit transdermal absorption by forming a physical or chemical barrier (Williams & Barry, 2012).

Comparison Table of Transdermal Delivery Methods

TypeDuration of ActionOcclusive/Non-Occlusive
Topical LotionsShort-termNon-occlusive
CreamMedium-termOften Non-occlusive
Topical + OcclusiveExtendedOcclusive


  1. Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System.
  2. Stinchcomb, A. L., et al. (2001). Human skin permeation of Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol.
  3. Bruni, N., et al. (2018). Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment.
  4. Paudel, K. S., et al. (2010). Cannabinoid bioavailability for transdermal drug delivery.
  5. Lynch, M. E., & Campbell, F. (2011). Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials.
  6. Hammell, D. C., et al. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.
  7. Williams, A. C., & Barry, B. W. (2012). Penetration enhancers.

Note on Medical Conditions

For certain medical conditions, such as liver or cardiovascular issues, the pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids may differ significantly. For these patients, consultation with Dr. Caplan at CED Clinic for specialized care is highly recommended.

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Cover of The Doctor-Approved Cannabis Handbook featuring a green medical plus symbol
Unlock the world of medical cannabis with The Doctor-Approved Cannabis Handbook.

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