D48: increased solubility of CBD in PVA-CBD-Silica in the dermis

The Role of Solubility in Transdermal CBD Delivery: A Focus on PVA-CBD-Silica Systems

Enhanced Solubility in PVA-CBD-Silica

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) combined with CBD and Silica has been shown to enhance the solubility of CBD in the dermis. This composite material promotes efficient absorption and bioavailability, thereby augmenting CBD’s therapeutic impact (Lindsey et al., 2021).

Solubility Profiles of Cannabinoids

Both CBD and THC are lipophilic, meaning they are soluble in lipids or oils but less so in water (Scognamiglio et al., 2019). For successful transdermal delivery, these cannabinoids need to penetrate hydrophilic (water-based) regions, which can be challenging due to their lipophilic nature. Understanding these properties is essential for formulating transdermal patches, ointments, or creams.

Emulsification and Solubility

Emulsification is a process where immiscible substances, often oil and water, are mixed to form a stable solution. Emulsifiers act as surfactants, reducing the surface tension and enabling the substances to blend. This is particularly important for cannabinoids like CBD and THC, which are generally oil-soluble and need to be delivered through hydrophilic mediums like the dermis. Emulsifiers, therefore, play a crucial role in enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of these compounds (Smith et al., 2017).

Over-The-Counter Emulsifiers

Commonly used emulsifiers such as Gum Arabic or Acacia Senegal can stabilize cannabinoid formulations. These agents have hydrophilic and lipophilic ends, which allow them to interact with both water and oil, making them ideal for emulsifying cannabinoids for topical applications (Wu & Nancollas, 2010).


  1. Lindsey, H., et al. (2021). Enhanced Solubility of CBD in PVA-Silica.
  2. Scognamiglio, J., Jones, L., Letizia, C. S., & Api, A. M. (2019). Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Dermal Penetration Enhancers.
  3. Smith, D. J., et al. (2017). Emulsification and Solubility in Drug Delivery.
  4. Wu, W., & Nancollas, G. H. (2010). Modification of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with humic substances and their application as an emulsifier.

Note on Medical Conditions

For individuals with conditions such as liver disease, cardiovascular issues, or any form of dermal sensitivity, the pharmacokinetics and effects of cannabinoids may differ substantially. It is crucial for these individuals to consult healthcare professionals experienced in cannabinoid therapies. For specialized, guided care in this domain, Dr. Caplan at CED Clinic is a recommended resource.

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