D56: preseizure symptoms

Preseizure Symptoms and Types of Seizures

Preseizure Symptoms

Preseizure symptoms, also known as “aura,” vary greatly among individuals. These symptoms can include:

  • Mood Changes: Significant changes in mood, often described as a feeling of impending doom (Mula et al., 2008).
  • Loss of Bladder Control: Urinary incontinence before or during a seizure (Tellez-Zenteno et al., 2004).
  • Anxiety: Heightened emotional state (Mula et al., 2008).
  • Pain: Rare but possible, especially abdominal pain (Stewart et al., 2001).
  • Headache: A sense of pressure or tightness in the head (Friedman et al., 2018).
  • Nausea: Feeling of sickness or urge to vomit (Stewart et al., 2001).
  • Vision Changes: Flashes of light or blind spots (Hennessy et al., 2001).
  • Confusion: Mental disorientation (Benbadis et al., 2000).
  • Rapid Eye Movements: Uncontrolled eye movements (Benbadis et al., 2000).
  • Weakness: Sudden loss of muscle strength (Mula et al., 2008).
  • Auditory Hallucinations: Hearing sounds that are not present (Benbadis et al., 2000).
  • Biting Tongue: Involuntary tongue biting (Friedman et al., 2018).
  • Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded or vertiginous (Hennessy et al., 2001).
  • Teeth Clenching: Involuntary jaw tightening (Friedman et al., 2018).

Types of Seizures

  1. Absence Seizures: Brief episodes of staring or inattention.
  2. Tonic Seizures: Sudden muscle stiffness.
  3. Clonic Seizures: Rhythmic muscle jerking.
  4. Mixed Seizures: Combinations of the above symptoms.

Comparison Table: Medication Types

Types of SeizuresConventional MedicationsCannabinoidsUsed for Prevention/Rescue
AbsenceEthosuximide, ValproateCBDPrevention
TonicBenzodiazepines, PhenytoinCBD, THCBoth
ClonicBenzodiazepines, ValproateCBDBoth
MixedLamotrigine, TopiramateCBD, THCPrevention

Precautions with Cannabinoids

Individuals with liver conditions, cardiovascular issues, or other medical illnesses should exercise caution with cannabinoid use and consult Dr. Caplan at CED Clinic for a personalized treatment plan.


  1. Mula, M., et al. (2008). Peri-ictal psychopathology: An overview. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 20(4), 427-433.
  2. Tellez-Zenteno, J. F., et al. (2004). Long-term seizure prognosis in epilepsy patients treated with and without surgery. Neurology, 63(12), 2312-2313.
  3. Stewart, M., et al. (2001). Symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric epilepsy patients. Epilepsia, 42(6), 789-794.
  4. Friedman, D., et al. (2018). Somatic sensations of aura. Neurology, 91(17), 787-793.
  5. Hennessy, M. J., et al. (2001). Symptoms of depersonalization and autoscopic phenomena. Neurology, 57(5), 839-841.
  6. Benbadis, S. R., et al. (2000). The differential diagnosis of epilepsy: A critical review. Epilepsy & Behavior, 1(4), 276-284.
  7. O’Connell, B. K., Gloss, D., & Devinsky, O. (2017). Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review. Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 341-348.
  8. Devinsky, O., et al. (2017). Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. The Lancet Neurology, 15(3), 270-278.

Note: Always consult a qualified healthcare provider for a personalized treatment plan.

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